Foot and Ankle
The foot and ankle in the human body work together to provide balance, stability, movement, and Propulsion.
This complex anatomy consists of:
- 26 bones
- 33 joints
- Blood vessels, nerves, and soft tissue
The ankle joint is composed of three bones: the tibia, fibula, and talus which are articulated together.
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The hind foot is separated from the midfoot by the midtarsal joint and the midfoot is separated from the forefoot by the Lisfranc joint.
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The calcaneus or heel bone is a large bone found on the rear part of the foot. The calcaneus connects with the talus and cuboid bones to form the subtalar joint of the foot.The types of fracture to the calcaneus depend on the severity and include stable fractures, displaced fractures, open fractures, closed fractures and comminuted fractures.
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Lisfranc (Midfoot) Fracture
The tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint refers to the region found in the middle of the foot. It is also called theLisfranc joint. It is the junction between the tarsal bones (group of seven articulating bones in the foot) and metatarsal bones (a group of five long bones in the foot).
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Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle
A stress fracture is described as a small crack in a bone which usually occurs from overuse. It commonly develops in the weight bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. When the muscles of the foot are overworked or stressed, they are unable to absorb the stress effectively. When this happens the muscles transfer the stress to the bone, which ultimately can result in a stress fracture.
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The talus is a small bone at the ankle joint that connects the heel bone and the two bones of the lower leg, enabling the up and down movement of the foot. Fractures in the talus bone may occur due to a fall from great heights, motor vehicle accidents or twisting of the ankle.
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Toe and Forefoot Fractures
The forefoot is the front of the foot that includes the toes. Fractures occurring in this part of the foot are painful but very often not disabling.
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